In the supposedly enlightened eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, parental indifference, child neglect, and raw cruelty appearedamong Europeans of all classes…. In mid-nineteenth- century France, families abandoned their children at the rate of thirty-three thousand a year…. It took sixty years after the criminalization of cruelty to animals for cruelty to children to be made punishable under English law…. Industrialized America added brutalizing child labor to the oppressions of the young.